400 million, that produces huge amount of money in income. Let’s also say that you want to earn more than that and become regarded as a successful real property mogul. Since the majority of your wealth is tangled up in real estate, you do not have lots of money to buy new buildings, so you put up a few of your properties as security in order to acquire large loans. 5 billion in loans to fund your real property empire and other businesses. 1.2 billion. You’re still making income from the properties you inherited, as well as income from your new investments, but that pales in comparison to the written down losses, and that means you don’t owe any taxes those years.
Ideally, creditors want to hey their cash back, and if you converted your fortunes around and everything became profitable, you’d eventually pay taxes on your earnings, as well as increases in size in value if you sold your buildings. Let’s say you don’t do this, and the banks want their cash back. Well, if everything is performed through LLCs, they can seek bankruptcy relief and your personal income and prosperity will be shielded.
- Take Benefit of Group Insurance
- Railway transportation equipment manufacturing
- The water resources offer river navigation and transportation system
- You’re already maxing out your work-sponsored retirement accounts
- Maintain property
The banks are certain to get what they can from the property they loaned you the amount of money for, and can either have a loss or push you to sell a few of your inherited property to make up the difference. If you enough do that often, banks will stop wanting to provide you money and you might have to visit other “non-traditional” sources of funding to keep your business income and personal lifestyle afloat.
You only get an optimistic come back from them if their price in real goods, C’s, appreciates, which it does under normal circumstances. So people will hold these documents with deceased presidents collecting dirt and doing nothing anyway. It’s cost-free to them to loan these to someone during the time they were heading to just sit there anyway.
And the marketplaces are frictionless, so there is no extra fee for selling brief any asset, including dollars. You might say the perfect competition in the model, no monopoly power, pushes the brief selling charge to the actual costs of the short-seller, which are zero. But finally, in the model, formula (4) helps it be so the price appreciation only makes the come back on dollars reasonable at the existing state prices.
If there were interest on top, there would be an arbitrage. You would just create a artificial buck, like with state price contracts, sell it brief, buy an actual dollar, and gather the interest for free. Therefore the arbitrage pressure shall force the interest on dollars to zero. There is certainly, though, the question of why in real life money normally has a positive interest rate then.
I would say the answer is that the interest rate is actually on the borrowing of real productive goods. The amount of money just helps the borrowing of real goods transactions. But in any full case, you can see obviously by arbitrage that in Wallace’s model money will pay no interest. All you get is gratitude.
Thus, the interest on money is zero, i.e., zero lower bound! So in Wallace deflation and ZLB aren’t some strange exception; they’re the rule! Wallace Neutrality in real life? Ok, now, we see, ideally, the intuition for why irrelevance works in the model, why no impact would be acquired with a QE, but what about in real life?